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The 2018 Greater New England UFO Conference (Sub. ITA)

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what number of of you have been right here final yr okay so it's some really important variety of new faces you're gonna get an opportunity to see one thing my presentation is just not referred to as Epson so you realize you're gonna get to see one thing actually attention-grabbing as we speak we're going to speak about planets round different stars why as a result of I'm an astronomer and astronomers will give attention to many issues you realize concerning the universe and amongst them are these these new issues referred to as planets round different stars or exoplanets exoplanets there they’re and I’ll let you realize in the event you unintentionally put the flawed speak up as a result of there you place all of them up right here oh I do didn't I yeah okay effectively you realize what we'll simply hold going if I see the flawed factor we are able to blame her as a result of it'll be her fault that information at that time okay so how's my sound everyone hears me and slightly little bit of ring I hear however I do know he's gonna have a tricky powerful time as a result of for a part of my speak I come off the stage as a result of I hate podiums I don’t like podiums the rationale it places a blocker between me and also you I don't need that you simply're right here to listen to somebody speak you're right here to get entangled and listen to folks speaking you realize that transmission of knowledge could be very essential and to do it I feel you could be proper there entrance and middle with everyone that's simply me what can I say old skool so anyway I'm an astronomer that is what we appear to be okay I even wore tie as we speak oh yeah black with a darkish blue shirt okay vogue sense is perhaps slightly off however you realize I'm getting there okay in any case after we discuss exoplanets we we have now to ask the query you realize why even hassle trying and my talks slightly bit interactive too which is it's to a degree and after I ask questions you realize if you wish to reply I'll ask you to lift your hand you realize as a result of it's not a category but it surely's positively one thing the place I like to listen to from you as effectively okay there's a purpose we're on the lookout for planets round different stars and I’d identical to somebody to present me one good purpose to lift your hand simply inform me when you have an excellent purpose why we're doing that who is aware of in the event you don't elevate your hand in three seconds all proper the reply is de facto easy clearly we wish to discover different worlds like ours and the reason being as a result of our world is just not endlessly our Solar goes to die now don't run Linpack though we solely have 5 billion years all proper however in that point the Solar will run out of the hydrogen gasoline that powers it and permits us to get this radiant vitality and when that occurs we’re going to must vacate this planet and go elsewhere now you may say effectively can we go to Mars oh yeah positive there's really a technique to terraform Mars that's on the desk at NASA and it has to do with mainly giving Mars a magnetic area that it misplaced so how do you do this effectively there's 1,000,000 methods however among the finest methods is to truly put a pretend magnetic area outdoors of Mars that's between the Solar and Mars and when you’ve got the magnetic area right here the wake of that magnetic area will envelop Mars on this protecting envelope like we have now planet okay he took that simply down slightly bit I'm listening to that ring and they usually're in all probability gonna exit you realize do it so this little simply sufficient so I can I stated it's all speak louder so I don't I don't okay higher alright good so if we are able to put Mars on this magnetic envelope then we have now a technique to give Mars the prospect to naturally terraform itself simply as some extent of reference so we see methods now to truly flip say outer planets into one thing probably livable sooner or later when the Solar goes it's going to swell is tore right into a purple big that's one of many phases it goes by because it runs out of hydrogen gasoline and when it does that it's going to swallow mercury it's gonna swallow Venus it's gonna swallow the earth you realize or it'll be very shut both method the earth is gonna be a cinder there's not gonna be something left finally so what will we do let's terraform Mars okay so that you get out to Mars however that course of is simply good for one more you realize half 1,000,000 years and then you definately obtained to do it once more however this time you bought to truly go away the photo voltaic system as a result of when the Solar begins to shrink once more as it is going to you'll don’t have anything left so we search for exoplanets we search for different Earth's now we're speaking so the query is that if we have been doing this to search out different Earth's there's a there's one thing we additionally wish to do and that's to reply the age-old query I've talked about earlier than and that’s is there life on the market effectively we now know in our research of the universe that it appears very possible that water is all over the place that's proper it's not simply on earth it's in comets after all a lot of you knew that the majority of you that it's in Europa Jupiter's moon it's an insult is it's in Saturn's ambiance okay it's throughout it's Pluto it makes up a substantial amount of Pluto alright so water is ubiquitous it's all over the place that is excellent news as a result of we’d like it to outlive so we are able to at all times extract it from wherever we go together with Mars Mars has tons of water I imply that's a figurative factor it's not simply singular tons it's many a whole bunch of hundreds of thousands of tonnes of water on Mars and who is aware of with a race of fingers who is aware of in regards to the lake the lively lake discovered on Mars that's proper I do know you guys know as a result of we talked about it proper below the South Pole of Mars is a lake an precise lake water lake below the South Pole it's you realize a mile down but it surely's there and it's not simply effectively water soaked strata of rock it's an precise Lake in order that brings to the query geez possibly there's extra elsewhere it took 12 years to search out that it's finding out simply the South Pole of Mars so possibly there's extra secrets and techniques that Mars has but to supply for us you realize so there is perhaps life there too however that's only a planet in our photo voltaic system and you know the way it’s we wish the large stuff we wish one other planet far-off round one other star hey that's the enjoyable half you realize so we centered we centered the search of life the seek for life primarily based on on the lookout for that component okay carbon is essential you're all made from it each single main compound is made from it on this planet carbon is the idea for us we’re carbon-based beings fortunately the universe is a carbon-based uterus – really there's carbon all over the place we glance within the universe it's in comets it's in meteorites it's in different stars atmospheres even as a result of stars make each component as we'll see so we're primarily based on carbon and the factor is meaning we are able to search for different earth-like worlds what's earth-like effectively we'll discuss that so the query is why would different life even appear to be us and I do know that the majority of you’d assume that they in all probability wouldn't look something like us and also you're completely right the reason being quite simple the reason being quite simple it's stated that we glance the way in which we do actual as we’re due to 5 main extinction stage occasions that occurred on this planet the Permian interval 252 million years in the past there was a huge extinction referred to as the good dying it took about ten million years for that too superior to happen by the way in which the extinctions aren't like rattling they're all lifeless this was not sudden it was a long run there was an occasion possibly an influence I did a what on earth episode I don't know in the event you've seen me on what on earth or NASA so clarify recordsdata gua bla however on what on earth I did one specific episode they talked about probably discovering this gigantic radar signature below Antarctica of an historical influence and if that's true that would have been accountable as the suitable time interval for what we name the good Permian dying when 98 p.c of all life on the planet was extinguished over ten million years that would have been the factor that precipitated it that might be an incredible discovering now they're nonetheless engaged on that so you realize who is aware of what that they're really gonna say that that's accountable but when you concentrate on it when the Permian dying occurred there have been mammals that have been dominant on the time imagine it or not mammals have been dominant that's you all proper and reptiles have been much less dominant nonetheless the Permian dying benefited the the reptiles after which when the mammals have been subjected to the extremes of this this specific occasion they went into hiding by seeing once more 10 million 30 million years it took 30 million years for them to get better from that nonetheless throughout that point the reptiles simply blossomed and we now ended up with the age of the dinosaurs after which 65 million years in the past you realize what occurred that was when dinosaurs have been rendered extinct by an enormous meteorite or asteroid strike off the coast that's of the now Yucatan Peninsula okay that brought about the reptiles to comply with they're such duress that they really retreated into the shadows and allowed mammals to rise once more and right here we’re so an entire collection of occasions happen these cyclic occasions probably that trigger ball reptiles come to the highest that mammals come to the highest different animals come to the highest and that's why we're right here due to that the majority current extinction occasion now what may it have been like if that didn't occur hmm possibly we'd be speaking to one another with yellow eyes and massive tails you realize you realize and admiring one another's scales or feathers how who is aware of there is perhaps clever reptile kind species within the universe that will have had a dinosaurian age so to talk after which ended up progressing past that to greater intelligence I don't know however that's the query I'm beginning with this too so you’ll be able to assume this by as we go and also you'll consider most glorious questions I'm positive you’ll you within the again I'm positive you'll have one of the best query of all possibly so realizing that we're looking for carbon does it imply that we're type of chauvinists towards carbon you realize some folks say effectively I don't assume the life has to rely on the on carbon possibly you silicon or one thing like that possibly however guess what carbon is a really plentiful component carbon is one thing that can is everywhere in the universe so most certainly it's gonna be a carbon-based life kind and also you'll see what I imply in a short time now the universe offers lots of the constructing blocks of life which can be additionally primarily based on carbon on this on this specific method all proper they're delivered to right here by comets meteors and asteroids as these constructing blocks of life and the earth makes these constructing blocks as effectively robotically in different phrases life as we all know it’s a consequence of a planet like this a consequence what does that imply effectively it implies that after we went to the rosetta it is a comet therapy ugly anko I do know you all know that hey I apply to say that positive trim up your Semenko 67p whoo-hoo flip the Rosetta mission to the comet that was a number of years in the past proper thank goodness that is really an precise picture of a comet an actual remark now the Rosetta probe took this picture now that that factor you see going off to the higher left there that fuzzy factor that's referred to as a fuel jet it's outgassing because the feedback come close to the Solar they get hotter and these things inside fuel is trapped inside can escape and when it does you get you get that everywhere add that up a number of million occasions and also you get a remark that appears like a fuzzy spot within the sky after which you’ll be able to see additionally some particles and stuff like I don't know the way effectively you’ll be able to see the laser okay however you see these little spots right here that is particles that's been thrown up by the by the comet effectively that particles add that up hundreds of thousands of occasions makes a mud tail behind the top of the remark these things right here that you simply see this this this outgassing these things finally ends up surrounding the top of the comet and so from Earth we simply see this fuzzy ball gentle within the sky numerous this occurring surrounding the Comets you’ll be able to't see the nucleus until you get within it like this lifeless after which leaves a tail of mud behind it such as you see over right here all this mud we have been speaking about and because it goes by area it's in orbit across the Solar it leaves lots of this mud behind okay behind it leaving are mainly a particles path you realize what a litter bug comets are actually the worst litter bugs in our photo voltaic system by the way in which simply so you realize I warning in opposition to attempting to prosecute them although they're actually type of feisty so when this comet lastly made a method across the Solar in and there being smaller and smaller didn't go away it's periodic that's the P okay67 P okay and so when it comes again once more it'll look very completely different all proper nonetheless what's attention-grabbing about this remark after we checked out its construction is that it's greater than half it’s made up of natural molecules you're made from these okay this remark so it is a pure prevalence in all probability in each photo voltaic system there’s each star system there’s and right here we see it on parade with natural molecules galore that is one thing that you must think about at one level a remark like this may need collided with our planet and if that occurred every little thing on this remark every little thing this feedback made from was delivered to this planet together with all of the water you realize h2o okay all the opposite chemical compounds issues referred to as tollens lots of completely different compounds and naturally carbon and different hydrocarbon stuff so that’s so one other method that we in all probability acquired lots of these supplies alright so meteors did the identical factor alright that is the Murchison meteorite I even have a bit of an identical meteorite it's it's all iron and it's solely in regards to the measurement of the palm of my hand but it surely weighs about 6 kilos it's actually an excellent weapon yeah and this factor right here the Murchison meteorite introduced 90 of those life-giving are these these these constructing blocks of life 90 amino acids to this planet that's actually cool you realize and this meteorite a rock from area alright which by the way in which does fall from area now that we all know that you realize and so the earth itself additionally creates these constructing blocks now how effectively again in 1952 a man named Stanley Miller and one other one named Harold you're a got here up with one thing referred to as a Miller Urey experiment what's that it's this effectively what’s it effectively the miller-urey experiment was a setup that had a mix of in a water cycle the place they’d a reservoir of water they might warmth it and would go over right here then it might condense on the within partitions of this different flask over right here alright and this different flask over right here is essential too since you see there's a spark being let off in right here that's our spark hole to electrode occurring that's the way it sounded – in all probability proper and once they did that okay we had these chemical compounds in right here water is h2o ch4 methane nh3 ammonia h2 hydrogen after which Co carbon monoxide mono one co2 dioxide carbon dioxide co2 so that is what we expect the early Earth's ambiance appear to be had these parts right here's what's attention-grabbing they'd let this experiment run for a few week and after per week they discovered that they’d an entire bunch of amino acids sticking to the facet of this flask as slightly brown booze the constructing blocks from what you're made made robotically by the planet that was a cool experiment nonetheless additionally they found one thing else when when Harold when Stanley Miller really died in 2007 they discovered 22 plus it says 20 but it surely's 22 plus amino acids within the vials that they’d made that they by no means noticed so many extra have been made that have been by no means even captured on the time isn't that cool and that is once more all of the stuff from which have been made now right here's one other oddity which is able to set you to considering have you ever ever seen that each single life kind on this planet every little thing above multicellular little creatures like microscopic creatures each single one in every of them has one thing referred to as bilateral symmetry symmetric in regards to the middle now you’ll be able to instantly say effectively we're not that method or we solely have one coronary heart okay proper that's inner however externally the way in which that we work together with the environment is thru this bilateral symmetry and that's each creature on this planet take into consideration that what does that imply it means it's a template that the universe offers in a roundabout way isn't it it's a template the universe offers a life we have now DNA in widespread with many animals after all we have now this bilateral symmetry and you realize this bilateral symmetry ailing for all these greater life-forms past the issues you realize the interior association is completely different after all as we stated however the way in which they work together with their surroundings once more the way in which that they work together with the planet is thru a symmetric method we don't have any pogo stick cows working round when hey you gotta milk me you realize me no we don't have that okay we might we don't we don't and there's a purpose and that's once more as a result of the template that the universe offers for carbon-based life on a planet type of like ours an abnormal planet round an abnormal star requires symmetric Preparations very essential and it's not simply bilateral symmetry by the way we have now different symmetry as effectively okay we have now radial symmetry flower petals proper on this starfish the type of phrases these starfish are one other one – you say effectively wait radial symmetry however starfish really are very attention-grabbing as a result of starfish began off as larvae proper after which they develop into starfish and once they begin as larvae they're really bilaterally symmetric as Lari they begin off symmetric with the world like we’re bilaterally however then they flip into 5 sided symmetric objects pentamerous okay that's a really attention-grabbing evolution in its personal c/o and naturally they’ve limbs that regenerate belief me medical science has been watching that for years attempting to determine do it with us you realize so that is actually cool stuff however we wish to ask now what does earth-like imply then to us effectively it implies that we have now to have a liveable zone all proper that’s one thing we'll discuss a sec we have now to have liquid water on the planet and we have now to have a secure star all proper now a liveable zone is that Goldilocks zone that a number of of the audio system earlier had talked about and it's for us it's 93 million miles from our Solar okay 93 million miles obtained it that's the place liquid water can exist round this specific star that's this specific quantity of radiative output you realize the radiation coming from our Solar you realize it strikes the earth it will get absorbed it makes it sizzling okay effectively that quantity of radiation means we have now to be 93 million miles away to have water that may survive on this planet cheap temperatures and and if we have now an environment that may help life it must be at that distance our ambiance can help life might now ease that early snow you're a experiment didn't have oxygen and it did it it type of did with carbon monoxide we've obtained Co alright but it surely didn't have oxygen the place'd that come from effectively we'll see in a short time alright however for us that that liveable zone is one we name it astronomical unit the 93 million miles it takes seven minutes by the way in which for the sunshine to succeed in us from the Solar and naturally it's shifting at gentle pace which is 186,000 and alter miles per second that's seven occasions across the earth in a second by the way in which and even at that unbelievable pace it nonetheless takes eight minutes for the sunshine to get right here from the Solar so that you see you’ll be able to see scales and actually immense right here now liquid water additionally has to exist and that's one thing that we are able to discuss it you realize as we transfer ahead and it's good standing water you're like a lake or an ocean as a result of we come from there how are you aware that in the event you have been right here final yr I discussed this I may need talked about this who remembers how we all know that we got here from the ocean who remembers anyone oh you're so shy sure thanks effectively carried out he will get a cookie okay oh you realize we had cookies oh now we're gonna hear some issues from him oh we sue I don't get the cookies you're completely proper salt and you realize NaOH sodium okay and the oxygen and hydrogen okay I'm sorry any seal speculation saying sodium hydroxide that's one thing completely different a sodium chloride have gained NaCl the sodium atom and a chlorine atom really that's a pure byproduct of water washing down land sodium atoms and chlorine atoms can wash away very simply they’ll dislodge from strata very simply however additionally they can mix within the water very simply as effectively and it's kind of a unfastened mixture to allow them to really be dissolved in water so salt is the way in which you take a look at your self and also you say wow we have now pores and skin okay what's that pores and skin the pores and skin is containing an ocean inside us we’re containing the ocean inside us it's a primitive ocean isn't it as a result of we are able to't bear in mind after we have been within the ocean this was an extended a very long time in the past however after we after we left the ocean and populated the land we contained the salt inside us as a result of we couldn't go with out it and we nonetheless can't you’ll be able to't do with out salt in order that stated you realize the truth that we're salty is the indicator to anybody who says that we have been seated right here by alien life you must say effectively clarify why we're salty then you realize clarify the salinity in our our bodies which is the salinity from the ocean I don't you're gonna have to clarify that one which's kind of a biggie you realize I imagine in unidentified flying objects I'll simply say that right here you realize I imply sure it's a profession killer if you say that isn't it honorable however you realize what not likely as a result of from a scientific perspective I feel they are often right here and we're going to get to that so liquid water has to exist together with being within the liveable zone all proper and being a liveable zone might trigger liquid water to exist as a result of all the suitable circumstances will probably be met lastly we have to have a secure star our Solar imagine it or not is just not essentially the most excellent star for our lifetime our life the creatures that dwell on this planet really effectively go to the tropical facet go for a tropical trip the Solar by no means units it's at all times midday or 11 o'clock or two o'clock the solar's at all times out your shadows by no means change you will get a tan for so long as you need then you definately resolve you wish to go {photograph} sunsets so that you go over to this half the place the Solar is setting it by no means adjustments it's at all times in the identical place {photograph} the sundown till you're blue within the face then you definately wish to do stargazing you retain going across the different facet and now over 4 days okay you get to see the complete universe that it may well see in its yr as you go across the star and also you'll see all the celebs I imply it is a actual property tycoons dream right here we ever get there okay however we gained't not not within the close to future however the level being is that this location is de facto fascinating due to the truth that it has three you realize optimistically actually you realize conservatively I ought to say three potential liveable planets all in the identical system let's suppose that life-forms did come up say on F they're labeled with letters okay so BCDE F G and H a is the star so we don't discuss that so it begins with B so let's say F has life kinds develop they discover out that E is liveable I solely put up a colony honey after which Eve places up a colony on D and now we have now life-forms on all three planets C on this specific evolution the species of animals that develop right here in the event that they attain intelligence in the event that they find yourself being one thing can benefit from the scenario have purpose if they’ll do this they'd be method forward of us in lots of methods as a result of they might have liveable worlds that they might colonize we don't have these we must make them liveable so see our system is just not as conducive to studying about interstellar flight in getting out of right here and going planet to planet as say this method and these planets are all very shut to one another in your sky they might be like you realize as massive round as a silver greenback in your sky okay or 50 cent piece in your sky in order that they're they're fairly massive in order that stated you realize I feel that the talk continues you realize as to you realize whether or not these three are liveable however I’ve a sense that we're gonna discover that a minimum of a type of planets and that's ultra-conservative a minimum of one will probably be ready the place it in all probability has an environment that might be transformed to an oxygen ambiance if not now and also you simply must get used to an actual quick yr you realize and since it's tightly locked you realize we're in all probability not going to get the identical varieties of shifts that we do on earth with seasons and so forth might be a really completely different scenario so anyway I feel that's fairly cool however that is type of what we suspect is right here you realize highly regarded up right here this one has this little man proper right here really has 50 occasions the water that Earth has 50 occasions you realize this one is perhaps rocky and rocky unlikely frozen if it's nonetheless liveable it is perhaps like Mars however possibly slightly nearer than Mars after which these after all could be principally frozen in order that's what we expect and it is a system that we've really analyzed and you realize fairly in-depth so it's fairly cool Trappist one look it up two-piece Trappist so so we all know that this we're made of those these heavier parts that have been shaped in stars okay after which planets are shaped from them now we additionally know that these a sort stars we talked about OB AF g/km bear in mind at a and past we are able to have planets and the query is how do we discover these planets effectively a few of you realize I simply talked about Trappist as a planet looking system however we even have some ground-based issues after which I can undergo all this like this that is simply to indicate you there's like there's 45 lively ground-based planetary search packages these are simply a few of them and this offers you the variety of planets they discovered however don't fear the purpose is I'll summarize all of it free and once more there's loads occurring right here on the bottom and likewise in orbit imagine it not the Hubble House Telescope has made planetary discoveries it's not designed for that however we managed a technique to do all of it proper and so clearly Kepler is is right here together with k2 which is named a Kepler prolonged mission and that can determine prominently in a second as I'll let you know all proper so there's lots of lots of lots of potential now one last item I'd say is true right here that is the large that is the large line proper right here I feel cuz went proper by it okay for all programs all planetary looking methods 3772 planets confirmed have been discovered all proper a few of which can or is probably not just like the earth okay they're not there they're not essentially liveable planets they're simply planets however there's additionally twenty seven hundred and twenty extra candidates now you may say effectively that doesn't sound like loads I’d count on hundreds of thousands of planets you must bear in mind one thing proper you must bear in mind what they have been taking a look at within the sky to provide you with these numbers what number of stars have been they taking a look at and that's what we're gonna take a look at so though it's you realize the the Hubble is just not suited to it however you realize discovering plans but it surely discovered many elemental particulates in a few of these planetary atmospheres stuff that we wish to learn about okay your water carbon dioxide oxygen has been present in a few of these different planets atmospheres all proper and now does this point out a commonality that's an excellent query proper is it widespread for these parts to be discovered elsewhere the reply is yeah it’s it’s alright so in different phrases bear in mind what I stated about templates bilateral symmetry okay these are templates the universe offers its offering templates for a lot of these supplies I particularly selected water carbon oxygen carbon dioxide and methane as a result of these are half and parcel to what makes us profitable life kind and species on this planet we have now to have all this stuff alright and we see that they're widespread elsewhere that's essential okay now how will we really discover the planets effectively that is the Kepler area telescope it was launched in 2009 it was really brilliantly profitable all proper and that is its sensor its curved that is the again facet of the sensor it's curved as a result of if you're trying by a convex lens bear in mind convex is like this you realize the underside and prime it's kind of like a bulbs it bulges out on both facet effectively like coming by the sting of the of that lens goes to be angled slightly bit otherwise than gentle going straight by the middle and you must understands the curvature permits the sunshine to focus in any respect factors so it maximizes the the usage of the sensor in order that's what this curvature is it accounts for one thing referred to as Petzval radius curvature don't fear about that however simply perceive that the curve is one thing that scientists take note of and that that focus distinction is taken into consideration offer you an thought you've had low-cost cameras each one in every of you’ve got in all probability had an affordable digicam as soon as in your life you are taking an image of this stunning factor do you ever discover it has like a blue fringe or a purple fringe round it okay the image didn't fairly come out proper it's like a blue or purple fringe across the constructing the sharp fringe of the constructing or no matter that's the sunshine not focusing all in the identical place so that you get like a purple fringe or blue fringe usually which exhibits that that gentle didn't fairly focus effectively that's what this sensor is for the curve does that the digicam sensor is flat it's not curved if it was curved it might all be sharply centered hey that's simply the information proper in order that stated what's the Kepler rigorously had all these things on it we're solely going to speak about one factor deliberately right here and it's the response wheels these response wheels what are these effectively they're these okay there's two right here you see they're on a humorous angle after which there's two over right here all proper now slightly up shut to try that I took this pic took all these photos in in Arizona I used to be engaged on a satellite tv for pc mission on the market and it was at a time after I was doing categorised work for the Navy and this satellite tv for pc was really a categorised satellite tv for pc a few of it was this clearly and after I took these photos yeah we needed to be very cautious and so this these this stuff listed here are referred to as response wheels what are they they're like spinning factor of them is spinning weights okay now when you have one thing that feels no forces from outdoors one thing floating in area in the event you spin a weight okay it's gonna trigger some kind of power to happen on the article to maneuver it instance you're an astronaut in area and also you fling your arm out like this what's Newton's third regulation for each motion there's an equal and reverse response so that you do that and your physique goes like that so in a way you go like this hey that is lighter so we are able to fling farther however your physique goes to twist to this facet if you do this it's an reverse response response wheels do this however with a satellite tv for pc and really exactly by doing this spin they they’ve spinning weights by spinning the weights as much as a specific amount they’ll make the satellite tv for pc look anyplace they need it's a really exact very very exacting science that stated you must put on this particular garb everytime you work on these satellites a very powerful factor on this image is that this this cable this cable is a grounding cable yeah that's me it is a grounding cable if you take this grounding cable you must plug right into a rail earlier than you get anyplace close to the satellite tv for pc and the rationale you do that’s as a result of any static cost out of your toes if it will get onto the satellite tv for pc it may well blow out a $10,000,000 part in a cut up second and also you gained't realize it till it obtained into orbit you realize so the particular driver is just not optionally available it actually isn't and so Kepler had once more Kepler had these response wheels all proper has 4 it may well function on three it misplaced two possibly as a result of anyone didn't plug in proper okay but it surely misplaced two so what occurred it couldn't level anymore the Kepler mission was now crippled and that was like in like 2013 I feel after which in 2015 engineers found out a method to make use of the vitality from the Solar hanging the Kepler area telescope to assist hold it aimed they usually recalibrated the remaining motion or response wheels that's not the suitable method they recalibrated the response wheels in order that they might work with the solar's power that's hitting the satellite tv for pc what's that do effectively it implies that now they’d their third wheel again it was the Solar itself it was a continuing power hanging the satellite tv for pc they usually used that with these different response wheels slower however nonetheless labored and it took until 2015 to get that to work and once they did what they did was they discovered that this system introduced Kepler again to life and that grew to become what's referred to as k2 the extension to Kepler which was the k2 we noticed earlier in the event you noticed it so these that the way in which the Kepler was designed to work was it was meant to search for these moments when the planet would go in entrance of a star barely dim the sunshine of a star would you see there on the backside after which because it comes off the face of the star and continues to go in its orbit going across the star okay we might really see this dip after which it might come again up alright now this dip is named a light-weight curve and after we see this gentle curve we are able to calculate primarily based on an entire bunch of issues right here we are able to calculate the dimensions of the planet the situation how far it’s from the star I imply you realize and how briskly it's shifting throughout the star and so forth and that helps us really work out an entire bunch of issues in regards to the system and like I stated there's a complete of 5,000 up to now with 700 confirmed and a couple of,700 you realize which can be standing by being wait wait to be confirmed and that's what Kepler regarded for was transits all proper now you say effectively wait what if the what if the Stars like this or what the photo voltaic the star programs like this and their plans are going this fashion across the star and we don't see them passing between us and the star what if there's no transit occurring effectively we have now different methods for that okay and so and earlier than we get as we speak I'll simply say this after we talked in regards to the small mother or father variety of these stars with planets we discovered effectively you bought to remember that Kepler is simply taking a look at a fist-sized space of area that's really straight over your head nearly proper at sundown okay within the constellation of Cygnus the Swan that's the place it's trying all proper Kepler and k2 are taking a look at slightly space of fist-sized they usually discovered once more these these 1000’s of come from anat sand candidates all proper of which many are earth-like planets most certainly in order that stated there's lots of these fish sizes that I've stated to you earlier than I feel lots of these fish sizes everywhere in the sky so by extrapolating out we are able to provide you with some potential numbers for what we expect we have now on the market and we'll get to these now this quantity right here is 23 31 it varies it's 27 or 37 somewhat and there's one other 2,000 these are rounded off you realize big-time however you get the thought the numbers the numbers are altering as a result of the science is altering you realize in order that stated there's different strategies to search out these planets and when once more if the star is that if the photo voltaic system the star system is doing this and we don't see it transit the place it's going between the star and us effectively the star may really be shifting slightly bit away from us and towards us if the planets are doing this okay out of our view they don't go them from the star however because the planets going round okay because the planet goes across the star that's the planet then you definately see that the the star is definitely going to be pulled slightly bit towards the planet and however away from the planet why as a result of their star is definitely shifting barely in a round sample because the planets go across the star the star is reacting to that the slight tug causes the star to maneuver towards us and away from us slightly bit all proper that's gravity at work and that creates one thing referred to as the Doppler impact and the Doppler impact is one thing we've heard it might sound as effectively prepare goes by you you realize you step right into a street yeah okay you realize that's the Doppler impact we see that right here too however with gentle and when gentle's coming towards us it doesn't have a pitch change it has a frequency change when the sunshine's coming towards us it will get crunched up towards the blue finish of the spectrum greater vitality because it's going away the waves are popping out and being dragged out and it goes towards the purple finish of the spectrum and we find yourself with this purple gentle that's purple coming from the star that implies that the blue shift and purple shift as its brought about as its referred to as I hate being that man I've carried out that so many occasions you realize I did I do know I do know what it's like I sympathize the blue gentle and purple gentle coming from the star will permit us to truly calculate details about planets which can be inflicting this and we do this that is additionally used as a affirmation for those the place we do see the transits proper so every little thing generally is a affirmation or discovery a way we even have direct imaging I talked to astronomer dr Machado out at Kip pika-pika Mauna Kea and white requested if I might use his discovery it is a discovery picture of the primary first-ever star system in addition to ours that was ever imaged and was imaged in its referred to as direct imaging it's infrared however direct imaging so a telescope trying with infrared gentle on prime of a mountain okay noticed this this planet proper right here it is a black occulting disk it's not a black gap okay it's it's referred to as in a cul ting disk it blocks the glare of the star which might even have taken up excess of the complete this whole Blue Sq. had it been allowed to indicate yeah this planet right here is as far-off from its star which is within the middle right here as Neptune is from our Solar that's an incredible distance all proper so which means this being the primary picture is type of a landmark as a result of it now begins us on the trail in the direction of seeing planets which can be nearer to the star it's one of many first photographs essential now in addition to direct imaging okay and if this type Susan is just not eager to work I do know I'm simply attempting to maneuver forward it wasn't working it's one thing stopped the laser works wonderful you realize however if you do that no you return one okay sure yeah gained't now it doesn't work now okay yeah go forward go forward one yeah I'll simply work with it don't fear about it that is one other methodology and there's a yellow line proper right here which can be actually faint arduous to see this yellow line represents the diameter of our Solar what is that this that is the movement of the Solar over a long time attributable to our planets circling the Solar this movement is one thing that’s may be measured and by measuring the place of our personal star or different stars then we are able to really see within the sky a measurement of the place that exhibits us that hey this star is shifting there's obtained to be one thing round it inflicting it to maneuver all proper and that is referred to as astrometry it's extra the oldest and most error-prone strategies for locating doable planets okay once more please sorry the final one that is gravitational microlensing this that is attention-grabbing as a result of when you have a star method out right here after which I began right here that has a planet going round it then and that is one thing that I instan proved proper with our personal star okay if the sunshine from a star passes by the planet as seen from right here the sunshine will probably be bent and it'll be altered and we are able to decide that up and we do if you take a look at what's referred to as a lens or micro lens star it seems to be like a hoop with nothing within the center that's really starlight that's been manipulated and bent in order that's type of cool oh it labored that point oh thanks that labored now in the event you're inquisitive about exoplanets okay you’ll be able to go to the open exoplanet catalog on-line it's free and you may really see planets and if no I'm not going to do texting or something like that however in the event you use in half an iPhone when you have an iPhone you’ll be able to really go and get Hana rains utility referred to as exoplanet which I’ve I've talked to Hana he's an incredible man as a che and n oh and you may really see the newest finds you'll see right here I've obtained the Trappist one planets listed right here you get all their data you get lots of scientific information and also you it's it's delivered within the layman's phrases so that you simply're not going to get misplaced by taking a look at it you'll get misplaced by a few of the numbers and a few of the method that they're calculated however don't fear it's it's one thing they wish to find out about planets round different stars that is kind of an excellent place to go that within the open exoplanet catalog that provides you a listing of all those which can be there this one could be very descriptive have numerous imagery numerous locations to go you’ll be able to even get a galactic map zooming within the galaxy and rotate throughout and see the way it seems to be from that perspective I imply it's actually very nice okay so after we discuss we return to Kepler right here and we discuss all these exoplanets we talked about this as of January 2015 all proper that is the listing of Kepler candidates that have been discovered all of the blue dots simply as of January 2015 after which as of July of 2015 this many extra obtained added so that you see it's occurring and on and on and we're gonna get to the purpose I'm positive the place we're gonna cease on the lookout for exoplanets and and simply begin on the lookout for life as a result of it's gonna be a foregone conclusion that there's life on the market that's past us I imply it’s now for all of us right here on this room that's why you're right here I've advised you that earlier than I keep in mind that however the reality is that you realize after we get to a sure level we're gonna catalogue as many exoplanets as we are able to as a result of that's what we do okay however all this we're gonna begin on the lookout for these planets that truly have life and we're studying that we have now some methods of doing that which is type of cool you realize now the Spitzer House Telescope is what we have now been utilizing to find life elsewhere to truly find atmospheres of planets and after we take a look at the planets okay we take a look at you realize the infrared vitality coming from these objects that the Spitzer seems to be on the Spitzer is a small House Telescope okay small all proper this one then again is massive that is the James Webb telescope this one I hold updating the quantity you realize when spitzer will get up you realize that's why it's in parentheses now it's 2021 okay I believed it was going up in 2019 so as we speak okay after which they stated 2020 then they stated 2021 effectively even when it doesn't go as much as 2029 and I haven't heard that but okay as soon as this will get up there and has a 21-foot mirror you’ll be able to see right here Spitzer solely has a two level eight foot mirror that is this man has a 21-foot mirror in order that implies that we're gonna have an enormous quantity of functionality this instrument is designed to have a look at the atmospheres of exoplanets designed to see the planets themselves not as dots however the data coming from the star and planet combo it's gonna have the ability to take that and decipher what the planets doing why is that essential that's essential as a result of if we take a look at the the conclusions okay we have now this that is true we have now maybe 25 million on the low finish and as much as 10 to 20 billion different earths not planets earths okay which can be in liveable zones inside our galaxy alone and oh by the way in which there's two trillion galaxies so now you'll elevate your hand how many individuals assume that life is inevitable elsewhere proper I'm fairly positive that that's gonna be the case okay however I let you know one thing method again within the 1990s Carl Sagan my favourite astronomer he stated that the Galileo probe was going to Jupiter he stated I would like the probe to look again on the earth and I would like this probe to inform us inform us what the earth seems to be like with vegetation that's an important factor you realize and we’re solely getting began okay now we have now this know-how now to determine if life exists on an exoplanet we have now it now how will we get it when Sagan requested that Galileo regarded again on the earth they checked out a vegetated planet and once they checked out our vegetated planet they obtained what's referred to as a reflectance index what's that the quantity of reflection mainly and mainly by doing that it began a whole course of the place they started making a database of reflectance for our planets they usually found out completely different vegetation has completely different reflectance completely different densities of vegetation will give us completely different reflectance so now we have now a database so we all know that for sure reflective indices we all know that after we take a look at an exoplanet with the Webb telescope if we see a selected reflectance we all know guess what there's in all probability flowers there and by the way in which we are able to in all probability even guess the density and the Webb telescope may take a look at the ambiance effectively we might count on if that's true that we must always see oxygen within the ambiance all proper we must always see co2 within the ambiance we must always see different parts within the ambiance parts a component within the ambiance which can be issues that we see on our earth as a result of it seems what we've obtained right here might be comparatively widespread yay Yeah proper I imply that's essential so it's actually essential and and with Landsat you've heard of Landsat there's been Landsat for a lot of many a long time flying round and orbiting the Earth taking photos of various vegetation in several lights infrared and so forth and all of it seems to be completely different all proper we constructed a database that exhibits all these distinction all these variations and now that's accessible to us and we're going to be utilizing this with the Webb telescope as effectively that’s the essential factor so what may we discover effectively we solely know one planet with life all proper and to grasp okay let's perceive how life could develop and the place we is perhaps on that scale whereas a alien species discovers us effectively that takes one thing else we have now to speak about one thing else okay and to grasp how that timeline of life works okay I’ve one thing to indicate you now I do know a few of you’re conversant in this little black bag and once they open it I'm going to take out a really essential piece of equipment it's very fragile and I would like you to you realize those who assist me gotta be actually cautious with it as a result of it's very very delicate okay and costly okay it's a roll of bathroom paper that's proper what do I obtained on right here I'm gonna be a part of you now this roll of bathroom paper is essential as a result of after we speak in regards to the timeline of life on Earth we ask what does that imply what's that timeline imply to us how did we come to be yeah thanks oh you're all right here I believed you have been gone thanks so we requested how did we come to be and the reply lies on this 117 foot roll of 298 sheets of bathroom paper how is that doable I'll inform you’re you gonna be my you're gonna be the formation of the earth it's written to start with I obtained to let you know clearly it's not an actual roll rest room paper I did use an actual roll of bathroom paper to start with these of you that noticed this final yr you noticed this roll however this has now been edited to I've obtained every kind of recent stuff on this so put together to only effectively both be bored out of your minds or take pleasure in it as a result of that is one thing that I did by hand I drew all these sheets each 4 inches I drew the vertical strains 117 sheets price I’ve no life as I've stated to you earlier than what however that's the way in which it’s so let's begin with sheet 290 eggs that's good proper there that's actually good really so right here on seat 298 the earth shaped after which a number of sheets later okay at 4

5 billion years we have now the formation of the moon now it's controversial I do know the moon shaped off of the earth seen due to the overriding principle is {that a} mars-sized object struck the earth and its infancy and it blew a piece away that grew to become the moon now I wouldn't turn out to be a spherical object blowing off the earth it might have turn out to be a bunch of particles that grew to become a hoop round our planet for a time frame that ended up coalescing into the motion finally so it stands to purpose that the article that was blown off the planet ought to encompass regardless of the factor that influence of the earth to start with was and the chunk of the earth itself that was blown off proper to turn out to be the moon so it needs to be these two issues effectively it's not science isn’t straightforward it's not the moon is extra just like the earth than the rest so it's type of arduous to to I assume it's type of arduous to truly settle for that the moon was comprised of a collision by this different object but we all know that's in all probability most certainly so now we have now to determine a method by which the composition of the moon that we see is generally earth composition imagine it or not the moon is nearly like us aside from an oval ambiance the core is stable whoever who's heard that and I heard this play summer time from a number of folks the experiments have been the moon rang once they did the seismic stuff proper okay now that ringing has introduced lots of conspiracy theorists to the forefront as a result of they've stated wow that why would the moon ring like that until it was Hole if he tried to take a ping-pong ball or a big massive sphere that was stable versus Hole hit it with a hammer and see how lengthy it takes for the ring there her and perpetuate you'd discover that the stable object would deliver for a lot far longer than the hole one it's physics so if you concentrate on that what meaning is the moon is stable not Hole and that's really proof as a result of it rings prefer it do you know and that tells us that the moon's core is just not molten any longer it's in all probability you realize cooled out at some extent the place it's simply arduous don't fear I'm gonna go loads quicker I promise okay yeah you have been considering I do know oh all proper so all proper so we're there and we transfer on now and now we're at that is sheet 284 that is the place we discover the oldest earth rocks zircons 44 billion years in the past who's heard of that I imply that was really in Scientific American a number of different articles okay zircons are the oldest and we have been in a position to date them now you may say effectively how will we even date this stuff and also you may assume carbon courting yeah that's good to it meals tent you realize simply over ten thousand years effectively how will we date stuff like this how do we’d like the rocks how will we you realize we date the rocks by understanding one thing referred to as radioactive decay our planet and the core is obtained lots of radioactive parts these radioactive parts are what give us lots of the warmth in our core it's what retains the core you realize sizzling it's what retains the outer core molten all proper now due to the strain within the core it's it's stable however the factor is after we discuss and that's only one factor primordial warmth left over from the formation of the earth there's one more reason why it's sizzling but when we take a look at the radio and radioactive parts which can be within the core we perceive from this and from radioactive parts in our crust about what's referred to as radioactive decay it takes a sure period of time for a sure kind of uranium and isotope they name it to decay from one quantity to a distinct quantity by realizing these numbers we are able to calculate by decay how outdated rocks are primarily based on what they have been versus what they grew to become over time in order that's how we really date these oldest rocks that's that's really essential you realize that was good time that was wonderful that's good have that gentle on the one facet right here yeah these are good you will get these on nice thanks Ron applause for Tom yeah yeah thanks very a lot so now at this level that is – that is 42 billion years in the past okay that is G 272 okay out of 294 to negate this isn't actually oxygen but or the place the ambiance really constructed up not oxygen the ambiance we began getting lots of crust on the floor of the planet after which volcanoes would erupt and we might find yourself with an incredible quantity of carbon dioxide sulfides and different hydrogen fuel methane and so forth and water vapor or is it go effectively goes into at that time we name the exosphere as a result of we didn't have an environment it's the world across the planet that grew to become the ambiance and it went in there and it populated over time and that's what's this began occurring right here it's a pure prevalence you’ll be able to't cease it you realize you wouldn't cease and it occurred all over the place we go you realize on any planet anyplace within the universe so now we come alongside and also you'll see that oh no you keep there as a result of in the event you comply with me round they'll by no means get Solar roll anymore you bought a keep proper up there you realize really hand him the top and then you definately may be the nook let's see in the event you're something attention-grabbing or hey let's discover out no it's gonna be a boring clean sheet I'm sorry I do wish to thank Susan by the way in which for placing on an exquisite convention it does it with Tom and Willie Miranda let's please thank her carried out a improbable job and as a lot as I joke round you realize love her to dying she's been very very variety to me over over time and that simply ended I'm positive so anyway we hold going you'll discover that now we're up the sheet at 222 and we're nonetheless seeing nothing occurred bear in mind the construct up the ambiance began method on the market so we stored coming round right here coming round again right here on C 220 very key factor occurred the primary micro organism on the planet okay first micro organism that's really pretty early in our planet's historical past you'll discover although like possibly can't see from the cheaper seats which is able to turn out to be really the premium seats once they get round to you okay however and on this case you'll see that I didn’t put a date on that effectively there's a purpose there's a debate whether or not micro organism shaped at a sure level in our historical past and we're in our historical past some say 32 billion years in the past some say 38 I simply keep away from the curtain the argument I say it look it occurred proper round right here okay if it was 3

eight e to be slightly farther you realize 32 slightly nearer that is the glad medium I'm proud of that proper so these are essential why on the time we had lots of carbon dioxide within the ambiance our ambiance was 90 occasions denser than it’s as we speak by the way in which that's the density of Venus's ambiance 90 occasions denser okay however due to our location round our Solar we have been in a position to bleed off a few of that that density by processes that would exist as a result of the temperature was slightly bit extra amenable cyanobacteria couldn't exist we're not going up oh effectively my keep down right here with them I'm not gonna go there so cyanobacteria are literally carbon dioxide gobblers they might really take within the carbon dioxide extra in our ambiance making an imprint partly as much as 90 occasions denser as I stated they usually guess what they suggestions oxygen so that you're respiratory micro organism poop yeah I stated it and it's true that's the reality about these cyanobacteria I'm I'm okay with that that's holding me alive you realize and once more oxygen in an environment a few of you might know this oxygen in an environment is one thing that doesn't wish to be there okay take a look at Mars Mars had lots of oxygen at one level and since it misplaced its magnetic area effectively then after all the the photo voltaic rays might obliterate it and make it you realize separate from water molecules the place it principally was and the hydrogen obtained misplaced the area the oxygen went down into the planet's floor and began combining with different parts within the crust of Mars so in the event you take a look at Mars it seems to be type of ruddy brown in coloration that's as a result of it rusted the oxygen rusted Mars and that's what it’s it's a rusty planet iron oxide you realize actually actually fascinating you realize evolution on Mars so cyanobacteria right here on this planet carry out a improbable function they gave us the power to oxygen in our ambiance they usually stored oxygen oxygenating our ambiance as time went on although the oxygen needed to come back out of the ambiance and mix and it did with many various you realize crustal parts even so that they stored replenish once more and guess what we're gonna search for that we search for exoplanets we're gonna search for oxygen in an environment and we're gonna say hmm is that this ambiance thick sufficient with oxygen such that it's being replenished and if we see that we are going to know that there's life there and if we take a look at the reflectance profiles I advised you about and we see that it matches a lush jungle hey that's a win-win then we all know we've obtained a life-bearing planets air okay so that you see we're studying we're getting lots of methods you realize and we're shifting ahead ever ahead in time and in science so that you'll discover as I’m going ahead right here and crash into every kind of tables journey fall and have you ever laughs that there's lots of delay right here and something occur okay it is a little little bit of tape as a result of some folks obtained slightly rambunctious holding it and you realize toradol hill you realize effectively it was a bathroom paper and initially it was very straightforward to tear in order it comes throughout now if we moved this fashion all proper once more not an entire lot occurring for lots of years all proper and Maryland's gonna assist me right here as a result of she's proper at this level oh you realize what you’re you’re the construct up of the oxygen ambiance isn't it superb this implies to make use of lots of oxygen and I do know her husband in all probability would in all probability have one thing to say that you realize she hosted me really at a gathering a pair months in the past really it was very good yeah very good very very very hospitable so at this level this was 27 billion years in the past yeah we're nonetheless within the billions okay however that is the place the oxygen ambiance obtained to a degree the place we we might see that it was increase now how you realize and and possibly you assume this possibly don't how do we all know what stage the oxygen was at the moment isn't that type of essential to grasp effectively we all know that as a result of sure molecules that we discover in rock strata can't exist until there's a sure proportion of oxygen so after we discover these molecules and this rock strata we all know that they’d like 33 p.c oxygen we did really at one level effectively you realize simply earlier than the Permian interval we had 33 p.c oxygen in our ambiance now we're at 21 okay it's dropping too by the way in which simply out of curiosity nothing to fret about they don't know anyway in order that's at 27 billion years outdated constructing years in the past that's when the oxygen stage reached some extent the place it was really increase to a degree the place different life kinds might evolve and oxygen is kind of that that lynchpin it's a magic lynchpin and issues began to occur pretty quickly okay now 25 billion years in the past we began to see Proterozoic life at that time there was past the cyanobacteria which is method down there I see okay and that took all this time and this was the what's referred to as the Archaean and that is once more two and a half billion years in the past we weren't there however once more fossil buildings and courting of molecules tells us all the data that helps us with this shifting additional alongside on our timeline right here oh oh I don't have a nook then we have now see if you wish to be my nook Benny no everyone's gonna assist me with it being a nook Thank You Ben oh maintain that half no honey that might haven’t stated your title loudly and with applause however as we come across the nook now we're nonetheless we're right down to 100 and sheep effectively 126 all proper and once more we have now from that time ahead the place the Proterozoic life was I do know you bought to Crane your heads however don't fear it'll be over quickly okay as we come across the nook and we hold progressing take a look at an entire lot of nothing apparently occurring and that is the a part of the earth growth I discover essentially the most fascinating as a result of there's a pair issues that occur right here to start with I'm actually impressed that I get the bathroom paper my viewers they usually adore it then again it's actually spectacular to see how a lot time passes have been what seems to be like nothing is going on but the little cyanobacteria method down there are nonetheless in existence as we speak doing the identical job they've ever carried out method down there unimaginable so there are little percolators doing their factor during time all by time there's quite a lot of actually cool developments to that of Karev occurred now proper right here I put this and that is type of an essential one it is a that is the formation of the primary tremendous continent on the planet Rodinia now you've heard of Gondwanaland yeah that's not the way in which down there someplace that is Rodinia okay now this was one level 4 billion years in the past and it's it's an important growth for quite a lot of causes we'll get to however as we see loads is occurring right here and with the emergence of Rodinia at this level 1

2 billion years in the past we have now a few of the first recognized animals on the planet now we don't name protozoans and and algae animals per se however so a extra multicellular okay was occurring round right here that's actually essential to me it's all essential proper we're right here if we weren't none of this could occur we wouldn't be right here so apparent it's all essential so I'll cease saying it's essential you realize that now as we hold going and don't crash into these completely great comedian books that you simply produce be sure to test these out okay these are so cool and we hold going all proper the primary earliest animals are right here on the market and now as we come to sheet my very own writing is hard generally 51 okay that is the place the breakup of Rodinia occurred alright and this was 800 million years in the past what does that imply what breakup we imply that is the place plate tectonics the motion of the crustal plates began to happen which by the way in which is one more reason why the earth is just not so good a spot for us okay there are planets on the market which can be referred to as tremendous liveable and we're not one in every of them you exist regardless of the truth that all this unhealthy stuff occurs on this planet we get ultraviolet radiation melanomas I had one you realize I imply we have now you realize every kind of unusual ailments we have now you realize earthquakes tornados there's planets on the market that we expect may not have any of that very very secure they usually're referred to as tremendous liveable so truthfully one thing like this after we discuss plate tectonics that was really actually essential for us as a result of plate tectonics brought about lots of different issues that modified our ambiance it modified her life developed it brought about the transition from sea to land of various creatures as continents cut up any land creatures would now be trapped long-term on their little spit of land that they have been on now that spit of land may need been 4 thousand miles in measurement however they're separated by water and if you take a look at the historical past of species on this planet you discover that there are some species that existed in South America but additionally present up in Australia effectively I didn't swim no any developed independently so they really ended up being impartial branches that went in their very own path however got here from the identical widespread ancestor 1000’s and 1000’s of miles aside now after we take a look at it however that's not the way it at all times was see and that's what I feel is so cool you realize and it's this planet's obtained all that for us and extra it's prefer it's like I'm promoting earth or one thing it's like come to earth come see the magic thriller and enjoyable so now so this was 800 million years in the past the breakup of that supercontinent and now the that is 700 million years in the past extra multicellular organisms made their technique to the stage okay extra ones now shifting ahead once more and this was once more this was a sheet 45 I gained't fairly get all the way in which round I went as much as middle aisle one other yr that was wonderful however then they needed to hold doing this and doing this and taking a look at each side as a result of I don't like I don't like having my again to anybody sorry it's not good so now if we come to right here that is sheet 35 at this level that is 544 million years in the past the Precambrian period bear in mind the Cambrian period you discovered about it in grammar faculty for positive you realize they talked about completely different errors of the dinosaurs proper Cambrian or division or Devonian blah blah blah okay effectively that is 544 million years in the past that is when the Cambrian period started mainly and that is the place the earliest organisms that use shells existed take into consideration that organisms that used shells that developed shells calcium shells a shelled organism is a really particular creature in all probability for a really particular level on the in time the place it was wanted evolution chosen that as a profitable path for all times all proper and it occurred 544 million years in the past and we nonetheless see them as we speak very profitable proper completely different sorts have handed and occurring you realize and and branches have ended and preceded with others all proper now when the Cambrian ended 510 million years in the past we ended up going into the Ordovician period okay now the Ordovician period was an period the place we really ended up with a few of the earliest fish all proper and that was 490 million years in the past I ought to in all probability in all probability considering I ought to know all these numbers by coronary heart proper belief me I hated this factor so I’ve to have a look at it once more and say oh yeah I wrote that yesterday you realize I had I had the newest information on this on a regular basis you a few of you in all probability acknowledge in the event you're sharp you already know we've talked about issues that weren't right here final yr there'll be a take a look at nobody watching I'm simply kidding now she 29 is attention-grabbing too as a result of it is a very essential level 450 million years in the past and I stated I wouldn't say essential anymore as a result of it's all essential however that is really essential 450 million years in the past for these within the again right here which are actually the prime seats see advised ya okay that is the place early land crops started this implies the land was being colonized by crops effectively then the place was it you'll say when the ocean plankton which by the way in which accounts for 50% of the oxygen technology on our planet do you know that plankton makes 50% of the oxygen what's the opposite 50 effectively land crops now okay so that is the place early land crops colonized and lots of issues occurred at this level which means now land crops have their very own area of interest they're filling they usually unfold like wildfire and once they did unfold like wildfire I assume what else occurred animals that make the most of these crops unfold like wildfire discovered new niches to take advantage of the crops on the land alright that we'll see in a second is a really essential growth there once more it's a growth that's actually cool proper now the place the Silurian period begins is the place the Ordovician period ends however the Ordovician period ended with an extinction occasion a world extinction occasion all proper this international extinction occasion killed 86% of all of the species on the planet 86% these species by no means once more we solely have fossils I’ve some they're unbelievable creatures that in the event that they have been alive as we speak he'd in all probability go you realize they're horrifying trying they usually actually do look malevolent I'm telling you actually actually evil issues you realize however they needed to be they have been specialised these are specialised characters on the time you realize to deal with the surroundings so now 408 million years in the past the Silurian period ends little slender space after which Devonian really that takes over and this 4 hundred million years in the past is after we see the primary bugs first bugs that introduced rise to some different issues which we'll get to in a sec now when the Devonian extinction occurred that was really the top of the Devonian period the demony extinction occurred 75% of all animals on the planet died seventy-five p.c 86 p.c 75 p.c that's the blue yeah massive kills are in blue and in order that was a 340 million years in the past and that is really the place reptiles began to come back in regards to the first reptiles occurred at this level all proper now shifting ahead once more and never colliding with something 280 million years in the past that is the place Pangaea shaped simply so you’ve got little indicators to the place which may have occurred this was Pangaea proper right here okay Pangaea is essential to us as a result of clearly we had rode in right here edenia broke up we had plate tectonics the Pangaea type of coalesced knowledgeable all proper after which it stored occurring that the plate tectonics by no means stops you realize land is constructed within the mid-atlantic his personal it programs throughout and goes down into the Pacific okay it goes down below the Pacific plate so a North American plate subducts below the Pacific plate that's why we have now a Pacific Ring of Hearth as a result of wherever you get that subduction zone the place issues go the place the plates go beneath one other we get volcanoes and that Ring of Hearth completely outlines the Pacific plate it's actually fascinating I'm trying ahead to climbing of volcanoes sometime I haven't but and I haven't determined which one I would like there's one in New Guinea there's Holly you realize in Africa I simply haven't determined possibly ol Doinyo Lengai which is slightly referred to as a silicate volcano a really low temperature lavas solely about 900 levels yeah I imply I by no means get the prospect however you realize I had it virtually had an opportunity to do the the science and information assortment for a ebook on volcanoes and we're taking me everywhere in the world to gather stuff however then I in all probability wouldn't be right here doing this I’d have been lacking fingers I wish to burn them off in all probability clucking lava I'm clumsy that method so Pangaea shaped 280 million years in the past proper right here on she 18 we're getting shut okay and now you'll discover one thing's occurring okay I'm not shifting as far within the auditorium to do the following factor am I and there’s a purpose for that okay life is beginning to explode issues are beginning to speed up alright that's what we're seeing right here so the Permian period got here to an finish right here alright that is solely on sheet 15 look all the way in which okay 15 that is 250 200 this was like 242 million years they are saying 245 right here but it surely's so it's like 242 million years in the past is when the Permian extinction occurred when 98 p.c of life died okay this says 96 p.c that was my typo it's X in 98% now you’d assume effectively how might a planet survive that effectively we did we did at this level when the Permian extinction occurred two issues are occurring we had we had mammals and we had mammal Lichtman animals and we had reptiles okay the reptiles and have been really inferior to the mammals on the time okay the mammals have been synapsids and the and the reptiles have been Sir opposites now that's the title however the sirop says the reptile-like creatures when this extinction occurred they weren’t as negatively affected because the mammals have been at this level bear in mind I advised you ways mammals needed to retreat into the into the shadows at one level that is the place it occurred all the way in which from there okay so that is the place the these synapses really needed to retreat mammals needed to mainly take a second seat they have been dominant they have been the dominant life-form on the planet at that time however ninety-eight p.c the extinction occasion that took ten million years to happen took its toll they usually suffered the worst they suffered the worst and so sir opposites rose to energy that's why as I stated we had the age of the dinosaurs that is the place it occurs proper right here that’s a part of our historical past and we are able to't ever say you realize that it's not sadly so now when the Permian ended the Triassic period started that the Triassic started about at the moment it says I'll say 245 million years in the past after which what occurred on the finish of the Triassic interval which was right here and we do put the borders of our durations like this the place there have been extinction occasions in some circumstances proper when the Triassic ended there was an extinction occasion all proper and that's what brought about it now this wasn't as massive because the others there's solely 80% of all life died simply take 80% of you and what's left is what would have survived I imply that's that's important you realize and 80% died now and that is the place the Jurassic period started 208 million years in the past all proper and when this occurred one thing else occurred right here at this level bear in mind I talked in regards to the plate tectonics nonetheless occurring proper effectively that is the place the Atlantic Ocean 200 million years in the past that is the place it first opened up from plate tectonics we by no means had an ocean after which on the Atlantic Ocean till this 200 million years in the past is when that Atlantic Ocean opened up like that that's very cool now 180 million years in the past we had early birds and mammals okay early birds and mammals have been essential as a result of it exhibits that the mammals have been lastly coming again it took tens of hundreds of thousands of years for the mammals to get better from the Permian extinction all proper tens of hundreds of thousands of years however they did and once they got here again they got here again in droves effectively we all know we're right here okay however a very powerful growth is 150 million years in the past 150 million years in the past this was the place flowering crops shaped you bought to inform me I'm not going to proceed till somebody can inform me why is that essential you've obtained to have the ability to determine this out sure meals is essential okay that's true all proper I can't take it away however flowering crops oxygen was cyanobacteria however that's true additionally no you're gonna get all proper yeah oh my gosh give one other cookie pollination bear in mind I talked about bugs that benefit from the land keep in mind that again there you realize I stated land animals would benefit from the of the emergence onto land of the crops bear in mind again there that is the place it occurred it took that lengthy from me over there to get to right here and that is the place pollination occurred at this level that is how we obtained what's referred to as diversification of species all proper radiative adaptation occurred that's the place you realize it radiates out from one central ancestor to 1,000,000 various kinds of ancestors that is the place that variety happens within the plant world is one pollination occurred as a result of that grew to become a mechanism by which lots of completely different creatures took benefit and was in a position to bear in mind get meals nectar and different mendler different meals that might really be used for different processes to maintain them going see and that's the place it occurred and that was 150 million years in the past hoo-wee dee dee that's a very long time so pollinators have been right here for a whilst you know and I feel that it's essential to grasp what level they they existed now 80 million years in the past we'll simply uh we'll get so far 80 million years in the past I'm sorry I'm type of making you the backstop right here 80 million years in the past the Rocky Mountains shaped okay that was 80 million years in the past now why would they kind effectively bear in mind to plate tectonics you've seen India in the event you take a look at the ocean ground Maps the bethe imagery it's referred to as on the backside of the ocean the place India is you see skid marks it regarded prefer it hit the Indian subcontinent the Asian continent proper effectively these are actual that's really a leftover remnant of when that Indian subcontinent plate really moved ahead and hit that Asian plate citing the Himalayan mountains that collision over time hundreds of thousands of years led to these mountains that crunching collectively you realize raised stuff as a result of it doesn't have anyplace to go presupposed to go up you realize and the mountains was once very jagged and ragged and over time their climate just like the Appalachians in New England all proper now weathered however they was once slightly extra jagged too you realize the Rockies are nonetheless comparatively younger okay and that 80 million years is fairly younger and in order that ended up being a spot the place we ended up you realize we find yourself seeing how tectonics causes issues in motion like that now shifting ahead we come to an important asterisk that's an asterisk essential right here that is the place dinosaurs have been rendered extinct by the Yucatan influence we name that the Chicxulub influence 65 million years in the past and we've recognized the asteroid that truly brought about it the asteroid really got here from our inside asteroid belt now we have now lots of asteroids which can be really within the Earth's orbit imagine it or not the Apollo's and the Trojans these are all they're not groups okay they're really effectively they’re some are I imply they're really within the Earth's orbit as asteroids which can be in secure orbits and a few of them are what are referred to as earth crossers they really cross our orbit and and generally is a they're referred to as near-earth objects and there's a giant catalogue of those however the ones that we are able to't rely on all proper are those that come up out from different means and ones that get right here from the asteroid belt effectively a few of them get knocked out of place within the asteroid belt by collisions or no matter they might come right here and we've recognized that there's one asteroid household of asteroids there's completely different households one household of asteroids is the one which brought about the dinosaur extinction which killed 76% of life they name it the Cretaceous Paleogene boundary and was once referred to as a KT boundary occasion okay the dinosaurs have been killed 65 million years in the past that one works okay effectively at this time limit this asteroid got here from a member of a referred to as Florian's FL o RI a and s Florian's and the fluorines have been a household that's within the inside asteroid belt you realize up out within the asteroid belt be on Mars and earlier than Jupiter okay now folks surprise like how a lot what number of asteroids are on the market in that and the asteroid belt and what's the overall mass the place they’ve planet that disintegrated at one level okay I talked to a gentleman earlier as we speak who thought possibly that that was a chance and I stated effectively you realize we've added up the mass of all of the asteroids they usually add as much as lower than 1 / 4 of the dimensions of the moon that's it the overall measurement of the asteroid belt is 1 / 4 of the dimensions of the moon okay then possibly there's some we don't know okay positive so quarter the dimensions of moon plus a pair extra even in the event you make it 5 thousand extra it's not gonna add as much as lots of mass as a result of we all know all the large ones now and you realize asteroid collection makes up for one third of the mass of the asteroid belt so you realize now that stated okay when this fluorine asteroid hit the earth it brought about the age of the reptiles to come back to an finish and guess who was ready within the wings these little scurrying mammals you realize in a way we kind of got here from Foles you realize they kind of went away okay all proper and you realize as as we transfer ahead okay this at this level right here and search for on the finish at this level right here guys thank already finish at this level right here that is the place India really collides with Asia all proper at this level and that's what's this what is that this level this level is sheet3 this was 40 million years in the past so really India didn’t collide with the Asian subcontinent to kind the Himalayan mountains till effectively after the dinosaurs have been already lifeless that's attention-grabbing so the chronology is essential right here you realize so and there's some extent to let you know all this historical past that's even overriding all this that that's coming I feel you'll you'll recognize it assist now after this collision right here international cooling begins for the primary time okay I simply lied there have been two factors in our historical past get method down there the place the earth was completely glaciated we referred to as it snowball earth it's a time limit the place we had a change within the local weather primarily based on the younger son on the time okay as a result of the Solar shaped 46 billion years in the past identical to we did and it went by lots of completely different adjustments and because it went by adjustments issues occurred right here on the planet that made issues much less tenable for something and so we ended up having this snowball earth happen now that was twice however then over right here a world cooling started for all the opposite causes international cooling begins and that was due to adjustments in vegetation adjustments within the solar's vitality over time as effectively and due to all that we ended up having a number of issues occur and I'm gonna let you know about them proper now right here that is sheet 2 now and by the way in which we're on the finish of sheet 1 that's the place we’re okay and we're at sea – the place do you hear this okay so that is what's be public know so after we take a look at this was 23 million years in the past that is the top of the you realize the Cretaceous paly gene this level right here the place international cooling begins proper every of those sheets by the way in which is about 15 million years simply so you realize so we get about right here okay and the top of the Cretaceous Paleogene of you realize happens that's the start of the Cretaceous Paleogene is true like you realize the Jurassic ends right here after which we have now the Cretaceous Paleogene begin proper when the dinosaurs have been somewhat extinct and that goes for a number of million years and on the level the place the the place the tertiary interval began don't fear in regards to the names you simply simply get the large image that is the place we have now the primary ice at our poles after snow ballers okay that is the primary time we had ice on the North put in South Pole alright was right here and that was 25 million years in the past right here after which 23 million years in the past is when the tertiary interval began now in that point whereas the ice was increase I used to be really the North Pole the South Pole was additionally cooling and the ice was absolutely entrenched on the South Pole right here on sheet1 the place we’re as we speak okay was absolutely entrenched his first Antarctic ice someplace round six million years in the past six and a half million years in the past okay now earlier than that it was simply after that somewhat a ten million years in the past that is the place the Crimson Sea opened up plate tectonics go he's going for it now that the continental drift and we ended up with the Crimson Sea proper right here all proper now there's slightly line proper proper right here I do know you’ll be able to't see it too effectively and it's type of intentional however the little line that's proper there earlier than the place we’re on this room as we speak proper right here that little tiny line proper there subsequent to this line the place we’re as we speak corresponds to Lucy Australopithecus afarensis strolling round in Olduvai Gorge simply at 44 million years in the past all proper now I compress the dimensions close to the top as a result of there's a lot stuff occurring however this tells you ways far-off Lucy was from us as we speak take a look at the remainder of the timeline and also you see the huge historical past of this planet outlined and then you definately really get how lengthy issues took to happen and the way historical historical past the dying of the dinosaurs is current historical past simply occurred so far as the planet is anxious that realization is what's going to stay with you and your stroll out of right here as we speak that the historical past of this planet that you simply assume is historical actually isn't so historical in spite of everything dinosaurs are 18 inches from us on 100 and seventeen toes okay eighteen inches away give it some thought after which that's actually essential now so past that we have now fashionable man we have now Neanderthal we have now Homo erectus they usually all have a lacking hyperlink between Homo habilis and homo erectus you realize has really been discovered they lastly discovered the lacking hyperlink I'm not it however the backside line is now I'm going to let you know one thing about this big time line that we have now earlier than us let's suppose have been a spacefaring race we have been shaped 46 billion years in the past method down there the universe is 138 billion years outdated so what's that imply meaning 13

eight billion years outdated implies that over 9 billion years of universe existed earlier than we ever did so realizing that we have now discovered planets which can be really twelve level six billion years outdated in our seek for exoplanets I save that for the top – you realize what I'm speaking about right here realizing that we discovered planets that outdated implies that planetary formation has been occurring since method earlier than we have been even shaped and that implies that the prospect of life very unique trying life or life type of like us possibly life not like us would have really taken place probably elsewhere within the universe after which made their method right here anyplace alongside our timeline so if the universe existed for 9 billion years that's greater than sufficient time for a species to go intergalactic or enter you realize further galactic even and go away the galaxy go round to different galaxies so if that's the case when folks say to me I don't imagine in UFOs so how are you going to keep away from not how do you say that in the event you take a look at the factual information the factual information says we're not even younger sufficient on this universe to even perceive ourselves but and 9 billion years of universe virtually twice the size of time we've been right here got here earlier than us so we anyplace alongside his timeline might have been discovered found and other people might have beings might have come right here stayed right here made a house right here left right here after which lastly got here again or one thing now we discover as we speak and I feel it's kind of it's kind of conceited of us to assume how these days how we're solely solely now seeing that you realize UFOs are visiting us now it's like effectively what do you imply what's the distinction between now and you realize a billion years in the past nothing an alien race that's obtained that type of data and functionality to journey interstellar which by the way in which NASA is already exploring as a result of we expect we're a few hundred years from really going interstellar oh yeah and we are able to go to Alpha Centauri the closest star system 43 gentle years away at the moment would take us twelve thousand years to get there on the quickest pace we are able to do we all know but when we go together with this new system NASA is creating referred to as the AL khabiri of throning al khabiri drive if we get there with that we'll get there in 5 days that's type of slightly higher and it's not even a toll street okay so let me let you know that this growth that took us this fashion even now on this little tiny sliver of time that we've existed I'll let you know this our fashionable historical past that the recorded historical past that we that we have now from the time we began recording our historical past was about 5 thousand years till now that's historical Sumeria and the Kuna kind pill your language pill language that timeframe until now’s like I stated that's our fundamental body of reference for after we really began recording historical past and when people really recorded historical past that being stated the cuneiform language is essential as a result of it factors one thing out to us in that 5 thousand years we went from pecking rocks to make the tablets to touchdown on Mars with Rovers and by the way in which Mars was the one planet and absolutely inhabited by robots simply thought you realize and in that point we've gone throughout the gamut from selecting rocks to touchdown on Mars and seeing Pluto alright and in period of time we already see over our horizons and I've stated this the variety of you simply over our horizon we see the power to go interstellar in a short time and past that horizon there's one other one the place we're gonna have the ability to go all through the galaxy in a way in a pace that’s gonna take us to not a distance star that's 10,000 light-years away in say 5 years however in only a few minutes and also you're going wow what that's science fiction Oh what yeah so we're cellphones okay however every little thing we are able to consider has come to go science fiction science fiction has turn out to be science reality I feel that this historical past of the yr exhibits us that anyplace alongside the road right here aliens might discover us and guess what if we're on the lookout for exoplanets we're gonna discover a exoplanet that might be anyplace alongside this growth aligned to so that you see it's actually a universe stuffed with chance and that's why I name it a populated universe all proper and that's the title of my ebook which isn’t but so you’ll be able to't purchase not but however in the event you ever need it we'll have it accessible possibly subsequent time subsequent yr however the level being that this timeline is how I wish to acquaint you with the historical past of the earth in a method that you simply'll really bear in mind in the event you take nothing away simply take away that dinosaurs are 18 inches away say to your folks dinosaurs have been solely 18 inches from us you realize they usually'll go wow you realize they usually'll say okay that particular person's misplaced our thoughts however in any case I simply needed to thanks on your unimaginable indulgence and I wish to thanks a lot on your time thanks very a lot

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