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Norwich University presents Breaking the Secret ENIGMA Codes: The Real Story of the 'Imitation Game'

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Okay, thank you very much for coming I'm going to take you through the history and the technology of the deciphering of the Enigma right up to today

We start out with WWI WWI was a bit of a disaster for Germany Germany was not only split into two pieces with Poland in the middle but also the Treaty of Versailles has mandated that there be no German army and no German air force and no German Navy Now, obviously the Germans were not too happy about that their leader at the time screamed at yelled and said we want our country back in one piece We want to do other things to rebuild Germany and you know but quietly on the side he was quietly building up an illegal army, a navy and air force

He trained his army by training as soldiers to be in hunting clubs he trained his Air Force from pilots as pilots in local riding clubs this was all to keep the world from knowing that he was building up his military and finally he trained his Navy and especially the u-boats in local sailing clubs They learned to sail But they weren't really only learning to sail they were learning to do all kinds of tactics and maneuvers In order to keep this secret from the world he still had to communicate with all these units and after World War I he discovered, Hitler discovered, he had learned this government in the Germans discovered that one of their messages in work were being read by the British the British dived on a sunken ship and brought the code books and were able to read the German messages from World War I and the Germans didn't know that until after World War one but they knew it by the time they started building up their military and they knew they could use the only techniques for coding messages they had to find something new and the something new was the Enigma machine They use the Enigma to hide all of their illegal buildup of military as well as the other things that they were doing in concentration camps and so on

They considered the Enigma to be totally and completely secure their u-boats were extremely extremely effective during the war they took a terrible toll on all of the Allies they sank over three thousand ships consisting of three million tons of cargo and in the process they killed a hundred and fifty thousand men by sinking those ships and those were the U-boats primarily that were sinking those ships and they were extremely deadly very very scary stuff every u-boat had an Enigma machine onboard And a second Enigma Machine on board in case the first one ran into trouble There's a picture of a Enigma operator on a German u-boat The Enigma itself is rather interesting we'll start out with its origin Several people invented the Enigma machine in various countries in one former member but a man named Arthur Scherbius was the first to patent it and to build one and he built this god-awful thing over here away over 300 pounds it cost about equivalent of $15,000 dollars and he was trying to sell it to companies to use in their internal security

He failed miserably we don't know whether he ever even sold one of these but someone captive on a show that said hey by the way once you try a little cheaper smaller model and so we put together this one over here and we'll talk about this This is the way the Enigma worked all through the war The Germans stuck with this design all the way from the original design to the end of the war That was perhaps one of their problems sticking with the design without changing the basics of the design The Enigma machine is a letter substitution machine

It encodes messages by having you type in a letter and it substitutes will then generate a different letter The letter you type in is called the plain text letter and the letter that is indicated by a light bulb lighting up is called the cipher text letter so we're typing in the plain text A and we're getting out a cipher text H and Without an enigma machine you don't know that that H corresponds to the letter A Let's go back to the Civil War and look at how better replacement encoding works In the Civil War they use something called the code wheel and this dates all the way back to the time of Julius Caesar who used the similar code and a code wheel and the caesar code simply take the normal alphabet and slide it over with respect to letters to some other letters in the same normal alphabet So let's look at how the code wheel works

The code wheel is first of all set to what is called the encoding key or the day's key and in this case the days key is A is across from H the plain text letter A is the equivalent of the cipher text letter H You can rotate this wheel to change the base key every day so it's different each day Let's encode my name Tom with this wheel T goes in as the site the plain text and out comes an A, O becomes V and M becomes T my name Tom has now become AVT You take that AVT and it's meaningless but you can't offer it to someone else who has the code we'll say some other general with a code wheel and a few set to the same days key then you go in and you take your A and you hook it into the innermost wheel here and read the plaintext letter T

you hit the T out you put in the V and you read O and you put in the T and you read M So you use this wheel for both in ciphering and deciphering letters, letter replacement Let's see how it works in the Enigma machine Remember I said you press a keyboard key and the light bulb over here that lights up This is the wiring diagram over the Enigma

This is how it looks inside and let's push that letter A down and see what happens We have a battery over here and the voltage from that battery comes through the key that you've closed the letter A and into the plug board on the front of the Enigma That's a bunch of wires that's right on the front here of the Enigma machine the plug one changes the letter A over to some other letter in this case the letter O and you then watch as the electrical voltage from the letter along the plugboard goes through the rotors which are rotating wired connections all the way through the rotors from the right to the left they then go into a reflector and come back from left to right and they come out of this rotor stack they went in they come out as an M now the letter M is connected to the M on the plug board which is connected over by the plugs on the plug board to an H and the voltage finally goes through the age light bulb and lights up the letter if you look at theirs carefully you'll notice that there is nothing any more complicated here than a regular flashlight you press a switch and you have a battery and a light bulb lights up so an Enigma machine is basically a flashlight with a few more wires thrown in How do we use it? Well here's our Enigma machine and we type the letter A into the keyboard and the letter H lights up on the light bulb panel Now we gotta take that H which is the cipher text version of A and we've got to get it over to a T ciphering enigma so now and this was done either by a messenger or by radio or by telephone if it was sent by radio the Allies were able to intercept it they couldn't very well intercept telephone calls or messengers but they could intercept radio and happily the Germans said a lot of their messages by radio now the decoding enigma which is set to exactly the same overall setting or day's key as the encoding Enigma

If you type your encoded your cipher text letter H into the decoding Enigma by God there it goes the letter A lights up So the decoding and they as a capable of taking the H and converting it back into the plain text letter A Let's trace that through in the wiring down here we see pressing the letter H and the bottom we watch the voltage come up into the plugboard the wiring is exactly the same as it was when we encoded A to H it's just going through backwards so the plugboard converts the H over 2 and M the M goes into the rotor stack and comes out as O the O is plugged into the plug board and is converted to an A and the A ultimately lights up the A light bulb So we've seen electrically how an Enigma machine can encode and decode a message you put that together with two enigma machines here we see they only be typed into the type end of a keyboard here bytes of the letter H that's the cipher text we get the letter H write it down the carry over to decoding enigma type it into the decoding Engima and we notice the letter A lights up

So we've encoded and decoded with these two machines now the neat thing about the enigma the thing that the Civil War code wheel couldn't do is that the Enigma changes its internal wiring those wires that we saw every single time you type in a letter so if I were to type in the letter A again and the Enigma rotors have moved one step we get a very different cipher text We get the letter X and every time you type a letter into the Enigma the rotors rotate one step and change the relationship between the input and the output key here we are in with our two enigmas again we've typed in a second letter A we get an X we carry the X over to A decoding enigma and we type it in and we get back the letter A So that is an attempt to explain how the Enigma works mechanically and electrically it's very very simple in terms of that but the thing that's not simple is the so-called day's key of the Enigma There are four components that constitute this initial setting remember I said that initial setting is very important the four different components of the day's key each contribute complexity and let's take the simplest one first and that is which of the five rotors that you can have available to you two in a box and two or three of the Enigma is located in which position among the axle is number one there's number two on the left what's in the middle and so on so you have three rotors and you have a possible five rotors how many different possible settings are there or ways of adjusting the private rollers into those three settings it turns out there are 60 of those each rotor as we saw in the video has an internal rating setting and there are a total of 26 ring settings for each rotor but if you take 26 settings in one rotor 26 and the other 26 in the other that means a total possible number of internal wing settings of 676 then we have the starting positions of each rotor each rotor when you set it with your thumb wheel shows a number in the little window up front and if you look at all the possible combinations of settings of the rotor it comes out there 17,576 of those and finally we get to the really complicated stuff and that is when the plugs are set in the plugboard you could have anywhere from zero plugs in there up to 13 cables and they could be in any of the 26 holes there so the total number of possible jumper pinnacle selections of the plug point is 5 times 10 to the 15th a very large number but talking about large number the total possible number his pH of three-rotor army or Air Force and Nick one is 10 to the 114 power but you take all those combinations together you get 10 to the 100 14 power that's a huge number especially when you figure that there are only 10 to the 80 of atoms in the entire observable universe so this is a big number and the head of the u-boats he knew that the chances of the Allies guessing which one of the 10 to the hundred and fourteen power possible initial settings was the setting for that day was virtually non-existent you'd have to spend hundreds and hundreds of years Friday setting before he head upon very proper setting so he was head of the u-boats and he felt very good about his units so good that he demanded that every single one of his you votes sent back to him a message every day in which they reported their GPS latitude longitude position so there were literally broadcasting their latitude and longitude no TPS in fact that was they use various techniques forgetting amperes am sending back to doing it their exact position every single day and he was so confident that there was no possibility that any guess the correct day setting that he insisted that every one of his boats reported back every single day and of course those messages being sent by radio were intercepted by the Allies and the Allies got these messages and they said that themselves Connor which we could decode those but they weren't very good at it and that you both kept on sinking more and more of these ships and this is the point where if you saw the movie imitation of Gate Alan Turing steps forth and jumps ahead and has this great epiphany and discovers help to crack the Enigma well it's all arrives I'm going to tell you in a minute Alan Turing did not discover how to crack the Enigma however let's see this particularly dear to my heart because that enigma down there is one that I found and restored and the one that starred in the movie imitation game so that part was good but the fact that the director would not consider the real story of the apron in the invitation Getman had to play Alan Turing as the hero was the upsetting part in the mission here we see Alan Turing so-called in front of this incredible machine that he has designed that built to crack the Enigma code and if you remember the movie oh we finally got it to work the first the designer so who was indeed it was three brilliant polish mathematicians who broke the Enigma code first and broke it six years before the war started at which point Alan Turing started working on it so the poles have broken the code six years before Alan Turing from into the code and it was indeed their discoveries that they gave to Alan Turing to the laboratory to break into the code and how did that all happen well as I said Germany was split in two parts by the Treaty of Versailles and Poland was caught in the middle of the poles who knew that they were going to be first to be invaded there was no question and so they devoted an immense amount of energy and time into trying to crack the German Enigma codes and there were the first people to actually enlist mathematicians to try and break the code somehow it had never occurred to the British that mathematicians might be good at breaking codes ridiculous anyway in honor the three incredibly brilliant polish mathematicians led by marian rejewski and with Henry Henry Zagorski and Derrick Rose Yuki and these three Polish mathematicians not only figured out exactly what the internal wiring of the Enigma was but they built the first Enigma deciphering machines which they named bomb bus and what do we mean by figuring y're of the Enigma code will every enigma rotor has a wiring matrix inside it that connects an input pin over here where the voltage comes in over to an output pin over here where the voltage goes out and the question is which pin here is connected to which pin over there it's different than all five of the rotors and it's very difficult to calculate the poles figured that out by getting a decoded message of the coded message encoded message and comparing them and trying to figure out how the rotors were wired once they had done that the poles actually built several Enigma replicas they have the local company built these is very similar in appearance to thee and they when they use these to help them decipher the German Enigma messages then they built a device which they named a bomb but nobody's really sure why they named it that it's the name of a Polish desert it's also of the name of a bomb which takes as it operates on the Left we have a manual bomba in which you have enigma rotors over here in Italy rotors over here you spin them and you look for coincidences and little lights light up on the front and over here a later version which has an electric motor found here that spins the rotors around and lights up lights on the front and helps them to figure out the day's key for the Enigma from 1933 to 1939 using promised the poles were able to decipher many german enigma messages six years before pond was invaded by Germany then Germany invaded Poland luckily the Polish mathematicians to escape the first went to France and then they escaped to England taking all their knowledge and their plans with them so they were able to teach the French and the British how to decipher the enigma messages they actually at the information ended up in Alan Turing's hands intellectually part and from 1939 the British took over code breaking in this estate called Bletchley Park and the deciphered German messages using the Polish technology for the rest of the war the deciphered messages when they were deciphered in the readable text were known as ultra and ultra reveal all the plans of the Germans virtually everything the Germans were doing as well as the location of every single German submarine in the ocean 10,000 public records working in Bletchley Park kept their secret of what they were doing not only till the end of the war but they were threatened with death if they ever reveal what they were doing to the war and so the the ten thousands of people not one of them ever revealed the secret of that the Brits had cracked the Enigma code and consequently nobody knew about it until thirty years after the war that's 1975 an amazing feat of secrecy on the part of the British mathematician and he knew immediately what to do with the Polish information he took the Polish and he used him construct the turret much man bomb which is much more complex and much much faster than the model that the poles used but he never gave credit to the poles for having taught him essentially how to do this this is the back of the Turing watchman bomb is quite a complex machine much more complex than the polish machine the poles didn't have the technology capability to build machines like this but it's amazing that they were able to crack the codes as well as they work as the war went on it became apparent that the Germans were building new kinds of cipher machines at the very end of the war and so Turing designed the machine which was called Colossus which is often thought of as being the very first digital computer to decipher the German messages and if you look at it that the need to decipher the Enigma was part of cryptology role in the early element of computer technology look at the Enigma machine and you see that it led to the Polish poem the other polish poem the British bomb the British Colossus and the Americans also built a bomb in the National Cash Register company in Dayton Ohio so the American bombs was a spinoff from this need to decipher the Enigma and that then led to the development of more and more complex computers so we're really looking at the birth of the computer age when we talk about the Enigma decoding bombs but what nobody has really mentioned yet anywhere in print is my contention that the Enigma itself was a early maybe the first early computer so what does the computer computer has an input typically a keyboard has a display typically a screen or light panel or something and it has a central processing unit the CPU contains at least two things of programmable memory and a stored program and we compare that with what we have in an eight we have the keyboard clearly on the front of the vanilla we have a central processing unit which as we've seen there's not only programmable in terms of today's P but it has a memory in that it stores what to do with the day's key as you type in letters and it also has a display so why not consider the enigma as the first laptop computer and for that matter if you're going to do that how about the Enigma that's the first notebook computer and maybe the Enigma as the first smartphone we need to discuss the capture of code books from u-boats helped touring in deciphering the ink but because a codebook told the base key for an entire 30-day dirty and so the analyzed tried to capture code books and thought to capture it and summary not because the subs are hard to capture first of all that the code books are made in such a way that if you get them wet the writing of them disappears so it was a difficult problem repeated predictable words in messages with widely used by both the poles and by touring and many many other discoveries and techniques were used in cracking the Enigma this is just a picture of one of the German u-boats u-505 be captured and boarded in order to remove its code books deciphering of the German and the just had to be hidden really carefully from the Germans that didn't want the Germans to know that we were reading their messages because if they have known that then would have stopped using the Enigma so Churchill have difficult decisions to make whether to for instance call out that or evacuate the town of Coventry which he had learned through the enigma messages was about to be bombed or whether to let it be bombed in order to preserve the secret that they were able to decode the Enigma the decision is not agreed upon by historians but many ethical problems were raised by the fact that we were able to read the enigma messages and in the process had to sacrifice so the wives in order to keep the secret the road to you about 784 out of 1152 were sown mostly due to the Enigma deciphering 28,000 crewmen out of the 48 thousand 70% of died and the Enigma deciphering itself was thought of us having shortened the war by two years saved thousands of lives and process we prevented Hitler from completing the atomic bomb which would have been a terrible disaster but decoding the Enigma was not the only way that the Enigma was defeated the Germans were dumb enough to force prisoners of war to build their enigmas for them I don't have a picture of Germans building an enigma I do have pictures of the prisoners of war here Building BMW engines and in this picture they are assembly highly highly technical guidance systems for the v2 guided rocket and it is likely that they also were made to assemble a big machine of course if you are assembling something for the enemy you want to make that thing not work and if you do it in any obvious way you know you're going to get shot in the factory so they had a dream out the way of sabotaging the enigmas without getting caught that meant that the Enigma had to pass inspection as it left the factory and then failed in the field let's see how they did that we've been restoring enigmas now for 34 35 years or so and that we've had at least 60 and they come apart and we have come across some amazing things this is a plug from the plug board on the front of an enigma that we discovered just rattling around inside an enigma machine and it looked perfectly innocent as though maybe it fell in there but this plug had never been wired before and you could tell by looking at it this Bruce had never been used in it which meant the plug probably had either dropped in there by accident or been dropped in there by on purpose Oh choose on purpose because the Enigma machine is going to work perfectly well with that little plug on there until it jingles its way up to the very front of the machine and blocks this bar from coming down every time they push your key of the bar comes down it has to go all the way down with the little plug there I can't go all the way down and the Enigma machine fails ok ok you could argue with that how about this one this was sabotage we think by a fishhook which was dropped into the wiring of the computer of the and you can see the fishhook here I'm sort of pointed it out with arrows and the point gradually works its way through the insulation and short out the wiring so that's possible sabotage technique too here's another one these screws that are used to screw the wires into the plugs themselves are supposed to be short enough so that you can tighten them down and snug the wires really down well we found some screws that were too long and they left the wire sort of a little shaky and that means that that wires could have not made good contact and the Enigma could have failed in the field and there were a lot of other possible ways in which they were sabotage at the end of the war it was clear to the Germans that the Allies were coming in and that they really shouldn't leave their enigma machines lying around so they actually just destroyed their in English by jumping on them shooting them and in various ways incapacitating them and Churchill at the end of the war just after the end of the war ordered that every single enigma machine and enigma become and the plans and papers be destroyed and we've always wondered about why the Churchill order every enigma at this point you can see why Hitler and the Germans would want them destroyed but why Churchill and the answer turned up when we discovered an enigma with algebra a Hebrew keyboard Hebrew keyboard how could you have an enigma with a Jewish Hebrew keyboard on that was the big question took us several years many many of us historians hunting around we finally found the machine in Israel and tracked down the story and the story was that Churchill had secretly given 30 enigma machines to the Israelis at the end of the war and he wanted everyone to believe that they were all destroyed but he said yeah take these enigma machines and use them for your internal military intelligence that really secure he wouldn't bother to tell them that the British had cracked the Enigma code so he had a neat way of potentially reading the Israeli military communications for years and years after that the only thing that ran the problem was that a man who had worked at Bletchley Park was an Israeli came back to Israel and he was sworn to lifetime secrecy about the cracking of the Enigma code so he couldn't go to bed earlier than say hey don't use those machines the British can read the code instead he went to Ben Gurion and he said I see that you're you have so many Enigma machines here that you're going to use for the military have you ever heard of the Trojan horse and ben-gurion got the message and they didn't use the Enigma machines in Israel but in given a lot of machines also that other countries like Spain South America Norway and they did use the Enigma during the war and the British were able to decipher it the Russians of course also captured a lot of Enigma machines at the end of the war and although they thought Churchill have these discarded all the Enigma cracking decoding machines he hadn't and so Churchill was able to read the Russian enigma coded messages after the end of the war a very very few enigma survived the war most of them went down at battlefields 99% of all the enigmas that were made about 200 about 20 thousand that a bus were made and 95% of those were destroyed 99% so there are only about 250 and neighbor machines that are known to exist at this point and the reason is that they were really well destroyed typically an enigma coming out of a battlefield looks like this or it looks like this they destroyed it by hand grenades digging for them in the mud is not a lot of fun and you're gonna take you on a little bit Nate Muhammad for the Enigma that was done used by general non-title the 3rd Panzer Division is a tank commander and he was forced to surrender to the British right at the end of the war just before the end of the war and the British turned the area where he was camping into a concentration camp for them and that allowed him to bury the Enigma machines there and somehow we got into contact with a man who his application is digging up battlefields and he told us that he had managed to find an enigma and here are some of the pictures of his dig one meter 3 feet down in the battlefield mine and in the process of digging up the Enigma of other raw materials come up digging anywhere in a battlefield these days is extremely extremely dangerous because the munitions are very unstable if you come across a just jiggle it the firing pin mechanism will arrest it severely and it's liable to go off so every year a few treasure hunters end up killing themselves digging and battlefields when I was much younger I took both of my sons across Germany with a metal locator we happily went through a battlefield dug out the pieces of metal just pure luck that we didn't blow ourselves up but it's extremely dangerous any of these things could have been a grenade highly explosive and anyway dig a little further and there the plugboard of an Enigma machine begins to appear in the month and you dig it out a little bit empty is a pretty strong metal detector to get down three feet dig it out clean it off a little bit and here it is cleaned off and you'll find it sitting right up here on the table for you to look at so you've seen the unearthing of the machine that you have in front of you we find a lot of interesting things by studying these enigma machines this one the pistol is pointing there and were able to measure the diameter and discovered that it was made by a 765 mauser and that is the type of pistol that was used primarily by officers during the war so you derived from that that machines were probably destroyed Brian officers at least some here's a perfectly normal-looking Lake in Germany and we had heard that the Germans had thrown things in the lake at the end of the war so thrown things that sounds anxiety is approximately one inch which means if you have a face mask on you can see your finger if it's one inch in front of your eyes but no further so you have to do the mental marketing by ear you've put on a pair of earphones and you use an underwater locator you sweep across the the wreckage or the bottom of the bank of – you've got a contact that you reach up and grab the contact and bring it up to the surface and here are some of the things that make some German radios with special devices that were part of a propeller speed sensing device for German torpedoes and of all things that the machine was operating at the time how did that machine well typically the Germans would kick in the plugboard on the front of the Enigma with their boot and then the question is how did they Bend the right wall panel like that and the bins looked sort of suspicious to me and we thought about it for a while we said you know that looks a little bit familiar why don't we go over and see Charlie who has a German Mauser and then we'll see if his Mauser fits into that van and sure enough the Mauser the brother exactly in the vent in the lightbulb panel on the Enigma we were able to discover them that the mauser have been used to destroy the Enigma machine how about separates every separate enigma shade in it so why don't we go diving for separation and then as well and it's quite difficult to do that you 352 was so as a torpedo chips off the coast of North Carolina and it's now look like that back then that now looks like this Iraq City and the penetration of a submarine is extremely dangerous I'm not sure whether it's more dangerous or less dangerous than digging in battlefields but they're both pretty scary to do they're penetrating me back up in 35 to with double-tag scuba tanks on and you can see it's a tight fit and getting back out with specially since you can't help but stirring up a lot of dust and you may be lucky enough to be seen this is an enigma machine that has been buried in the unit for 70 years and you can see it's not in the greatest of condition for the nigma machines in this condition of great historic value and a number of museums make displays of machines like this since they can't afford fully restore the neighbor machines typically very few beneath the machines actually survived and and he was interested in you know and that was the first moment we set eyes on the enigma that you may have seen in the imitation game so that's the enigma that showed up in the imitation game we ended up by through the front and learning his story and it's quite fascinating the hunt for this machine this is the Enigma that we bought from him we took it apart restored it made sure it was in working condition and so that to Bletchley Park and Bletchley Park that London to the imitation game movie but it was nice to see that enigma on the big screen the necklace maybe 367 of them if you can up the marina necklace and maybe 40 were made they have been selling for increasingly high prices the Enigma sold in 2012 for about $45,000 into them 14 424,000 2018 265,000 and i just received word from my wife we have an Enigma machine that's going up for auction tomorrow and it has already reached the cost to the buyer of over 301 $305,000 so it's absolutely amazing careful with these machines well this guy is the former chief technical officer for Apple computing and he was just delighted with this machine this matter of fact he has gradually become one of the great enigma historians and he must have what do you think ten different cipher machines like that at this point this is a young museum very few museums can afford and hikmah machines but this museum was able to afford one and it's on display was on display at the Chatham Marconi Museum here's a picture of the kind of I deal with you as the plaintext letter that you're trying to decipher to the hand and the ciphertext letter is printed out a little piece of paper tape no matter in these they're just purely mechanical but fairly complicated mechanical devices if you look at the rotors closely you see that the spacing between the letters on the rotors is very different over here you could see there are widely spaced and over here they're closely spaced and there are these little slider things up here that make the encoding of the message extremely complex the setting the days key on a machine like this involves setting the starting setting of the rotors but also setting this slider matrix back in there it was a little easier for the Germans to crack the M 209 that it was to crack the a neighbor machine but it was still used fairly quietly in situations where the Americans have to have absolute total secrecy they used the device pole the Americans sit down and the segawa is so secret and so well kept the secrets are so well kept that we've never been able to turn up a surplus segata they are still classified and hidden away and nobody is really sure exactly what the wiring or the internal settings are like or miss a comma the regiments were also involved in building cipher machines after the end of World War two as I said they use the Enigma machines to some extent but they also have been fine designed the device that they codenamed Bianca the word Russian word for purple or viola and this machine much much much more complicated than an Enigma machine you'll see that it has a total of ten rotors instead of a three in an enigma the rotors rotated opposite directions to each other and there is a little paper card reader on the side that serves the same purpose as the plum port on the front of the Enigma machine so it's extremely difficult NASA refuses to either accept or deny the fact that they are able to crack the Russian fiamma so we don't know for sure whether the NSA that is is able to read those special but probably they have learned to crack the Bianco code and finally we look at the Harris RF 3 1 which is the absolute latest in in ciphered radio equipment that is today's and but we have one down at the end of the table for you to look at it has inside it the Enigma machine electronic enigma machine and so it is so we have all these things starting with the Civil War code will go through the Enigma do they M 209 feel calm and the in ciphered radio of the n 3 in coma and look at as well as a copy of the inside enigma the second edition of our book available and ice at the end there and back to the display on the front table that they give me here if there are any questions from anybody yes yes the didn't it's got scared all the separates were being sung and so he took the standard and modified reflectors smaller sneaked the fourth wheel in there and they're not a lot of those around they they typically sell for about over half a million five hundred fifty thousand and they are more difficult to crack but turn was on top of that they want us to do this have this machine designed for them who said I wanted machine that you can't because easily there's a machine do that my Air Force guys won't be able to read your enigma messages and the only way I'll let you do that is if you make the forerunner enigma so that it works exactly like the three rotor enigma if you keep the fourth rotor in the 8th position so that was just an incredible giveaways of the analyzed who we're trying to crack this because they knew that it was completely the same as three motor and made them except for the position of that last broker yeah any other questions yes did they have the Germans have trouble especially saying again did the Germans have trouble with corrosion especially in the babel application thieves enigmas are amazingly resilient and they don't seem to have problems the one problem that exists is that the Germans did not use gold or silver or platinum contacts on the rotors so you would expect that there would be problems with corrosion and I don't remember ever hearing anyone complain of corrosion on a Marine enigma to you as long as they were use yeah the Enigma really needs to be used because without gold silver or platinum that grabs a lot of brass contacts are not very reliable anyone else well I'm assuming that's because that's one of the original ones world war ii era if you were if someone were to trying to make a replica today how much would that cost we have a band that works with us in Germany and he made 10 replicas and they were so exactly put over 600 man-hours into each one there were so exact that even the flaw with the Enigma was present in his replicas the flaw is that there's a little part that binds after a while so this was unbelievably complete and he charged fifty five thousand dollars apiece for the replica so it's right up there his closet so right now the big thing if you have a smartphone about suing everyone in the room has a smartphone you were going to put up an 8-byte your smartphone for free army and military so don't hesitate to to vet any other questions yes they're always stepping on a car the right-hand rotor steps 26 times keeps the middle brother once and that one knows 26 times fix the left and loaded ones doesn't matter what library art idea they're always using that kind of rotational sequence unlike this incredible vehicle question where everybody's gone and every which way they can't even begin to understand what it's doing anyone else please feel free to come up here look at the machines touch the machines will be here to answer your questions thanks for coming thank you

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