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Aliens oder tote Sterne? Little Green Man 1 | Short Story Science #2

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Welcome to Doctoral Studies where today is the discovery of a vibrant sky object in 1967, which was named Little Green Man 1 And yes, the explorers put themselves under a little green man exactly the same like you – an alien

Today we know that at that time unfortunately no extraterrestrial life was found, the PhD student Jocelyn Bell and her PhD supervisor Antony Hewish were able to discover her However, at this time, no other explanation than with a message from space Here comes the whole story: In the summer of 1967 discovered Jocelyn Bell and Antony Hewish strange radio signals when measured with a radio telescope system at Cambridge They appeared extremely even and disappeared again So there is some object in space that opens and closes at regular intervals ableuchtet Because of this not previously known regularity, the team quickly came Imagine that it is an artificially generated message of an alien life form – so a kind of lighthouse in space – could act

The object was therefore according to classic Hollywood style internally "little green man 1 "baptized Help with the

interpretation got the two discoverers of the astrophysicist Thomas Gold He suggested at a conference that it would be the periodically lit up Object could act around a rotating neutron star The audience thought his suggestion was absurd and not even worthy of discussion Later, his guess turned out to be correct

What is a neutron star? You've probably heard of it before, stars after a lifetime to die Stars merge light elements into heavy elements, with very high levels of energy be released This energy keeps stars from collapsing against their own gravity One day, every star runs out of fuel: there are no longer any elements which can naturally merge together The star dies

What happens after that with the star essentially depends on its mass: If a star is as massive as our sun, it eventually goes out of the hydrogen and he beg

ins to fuse the helium produced by the hydrogen fusion and puffs up – to a red giant If it is completely burnt out, there is nothing left, what the gravity of the object He shrinks to a white dwarf, which is the first possible death of a star is Stars with 14 to 3

2 solar masses happen again to the same thing, the gravitation wins over the no longer existing pressure of nuclear fusion and they collapse However, it comes to a supernova, which means that the outer shells through the high gravitation of the massive stars fall so fast on the nucleus that they to be thrown back The star explodes and only the core stays behind Because the gravity is much higher in the core due to the high mass than in our example Sun, compresses matter, in this case electrons and protons, so much together, that they turn into neutrons Tada – and that's how the neutron star is made

Of course, many of you know what happens when a star is even more massive 32 times as heavy as our sun – then even the neutrons of gravity no longer withstand and the star collapses into a black hole But do not get off topic, this is about neutron stars These can maintain the angular momentum of the dead star nucleus from which they originated and consequently also rotate And quite fast: They have a much smaller radius than their predecessor star, why the rotational speed increases significantly with the collapse of the star, like a ballerina, who pulls her arms and with the same angular momentum by the smaller radius turns faster

The axis around which the neutron star rotates is called the rotation axis A neutron star can also have a magnetic field axis that is not exactly like the axis of rotation runs, but because of the rotation so synonymous with rotates When a magnetic field moves, an electric field is induced This bundles electrically charged particles from the environment such as electrons, positrons, Protons and ions and accelerates them along the magnetic field axis These particles, in turn, transmit through the extremely high speed they are due to strong magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation called synchrotron radiation is off, in the radio wave area

Such a rotating neutron star we call Pulsar Since a pulsar rotates, we do not take this synchrotron radiation through, but instead Recurring – whenever the beam points to the earth – just like Jocelyn Bell recognized it on the records of the radio telescope Of course, the discovery of the first pulsar was not without its reward, the doctoral supervisor Antony Hewish received in 1974 the highest scientific award, the Nobel Prize Wait a moment? What about Jocelyn Bell? Unfortunately, it went out empty, although you the periodically occurring radio signals of Pulsars even attracted attention first Real outrageous right? But do not worry, she was also awarded several awards, such as the Michelson Medal The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Bell was also in 2007 by the British Queen raised to personal nobility

Last year, in 2018, she received the Breakthrough Prize, endowed with $ 3 million was – so she did not go out empty handed If you still feel bad for her after the Nobel Prize case, you write but just a nice email to: jocelyn@astrooxacuk Maybe we should but worse feeling for a colleague of hers who later confessed to her, the pulsar signal ahead to have discovered her, but interpreted it as a measurement error

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